13-4-2**SAVING THE SOIL**
More than a third of the Earth's top layer is at risk. Is there hope for our planet's most precious resource?
小标题,作者哀嚎. > 就现象提出疑问”
A More than a third of the world's soil is ==endangered==, according to a recent UN report. If we don't slow the decline, all farmable soil could be gone in 60 years. Since soil grows 95% of our food, and sustains human life in other more surprising ways, that is a huge problem.
B Peter Groffman, from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in New York, points out that soil scientists have been warning about the degradation of the world's soil for decades. At the same time, our understanding of its importance to humans has grown. A single gram of healthy soil might contain 100 million bacteria, as well as other ==microorganisms== such as viruses and ==fungi==, living amid ==decomposing== plants and various minerals.
PG这个人说科学家发现土地退化很多年了. 同时人们也明白了土地很重要. 然后解释具体怎么个重要.”
That means soils do not just grow our food, but are the source of ==nearly all our existing antibiotics==, and could be our best hope in the fight against antibiotic- resistant bacteria. Soil is also an ==ally== against climate change: as microorganisms within soil digest dead animals and plants, they lock in their carbon content, holding three times the amount of carbon as does the entire atmosphere. Soils also store water, preventing flood damage: in the UK, damage to buildings, roads and bridges from floods caused by soil degradation costs £233 million every year.
ally 盟友;同盟国,辅助 支持者”
C If the soil loses its ability to perform these functions, the human race could be in big trouble. The danger is not that the soil will disappear completely, but that the microorganisms that give it its ==special properties== will be lost. And once this has happened, it may take the soil thousands of years to recover.
special properties 特性”
Agriculture is by far the biggest problem. In the wild, when plants grow they remove nutrients from the soil, but then when the plants die and decay these nutrients are returned directly to the soil. Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile. In the past we developed strategies to get around the problem, such as regularly varying the types of crops grown, or leaving fields uncultivated for a season.
D But these practices became inconvenient as populations grew and agriculture had to be run on more commercial lines. A solution came in the early 20th century with the Haber-Bosch process for manufacturing ==ammonium nitrate==. Farmers have been putting this ==synthetic fertiliser== on their fields ever since.
ammonium nitrate. 硝酸铵. 这个老见,记一下影响不大.
synthetic fertiliser 合成肥料”
But over the past few decades, it has become clear this wasn't such a bright idea. Chemical fertilisers can release polluting ==nitrous oxide== into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers. More recently, we have found that ==indiscriminate== use of fertilisers hurts the soil itself, turning it a==cidic and salty,== and degrading the soil they are supposed to ==nourish.==
indiscriminate 不歧视v. 无差别的,任意的.
E One of the people looking for a solution to this problem is Pius Floris, who ==started out== running a tree-care business in the ==Netherlands==, and now advises some of the world's top soil scientists. He came to realise that the best way to ensure his trees ==flourished== was to take care of the soil, and has developed a ==cocktail== of beneficial bacteria, fungi and humus* to do this. Researchers at the University of Valladolid in Spain recently used this cocktail on soils destroyed by years of fertiliser overuse. When they applied Floris's mix to the desert-like test ==plots==, a good crop of plants emerged that were not just healthy at the surface, but had roots strong enough to ==pierce== dirt as hard as rock. The few plants that grew in the ==control plots==, fed with traditional fertilisers, were small and weak.
start out 从事,出发.
F However, measures like this are not enough to solve the global soil degradation problem. To assess our options on a global scale we first ==need an accurate picture of what types of soil are out there==, and the problems they face. That's not easy. For one thing, there is no agreed international system for classifying soil. In an attempt to unify the different approaches, the UN has created the Global Soil Map project. Researchers from nine countries are working together to create a map linked to a database that can be fed measurements from field surveys, ==drone surveys,== satellite imagery, lab analyses and so on to provide real-time data on the state of the soil. Within the next four years, they aim to have mapped soils worldwide to a depth of 100 metres, with the results freely accessible to all.
access 使用权, 入口通道.访问.
be fed. 就是被提供.”
G But this is only a first step. We need ways of presenting the problem that bring it home to governments and the wider public, says Pamela Chasek at the International Institute for Sustainable Development, in Winnipeg, Canada. 'Most scientists don't speak language that policy-makers can understand, and vice versa. Chasek and her colleagues have proposed a goal of 'zero net land degradation'. Like the idea of ==carbon neutrality==, it is an easily understood target that can help shape expectations and encourage action.
carbon neutrality 碳中和”
For soils on the brink, that may be too late. Several researchers are ==agitating== for the immediate creation of protected zones for endangered soils. One difficulty here is defining what these areas should conserve: areas where the greatest soil diversity is present? Or areas of unspoilt soils that could act as a future benchmark of quality?
Whatever we do, if we want our soils to survive, we need to take action now.
*Humus: the part of the soil formed from dead plant material
第一题 14-17 Complete the summary below. 短文填空
==Write ONE WORD ONLY in each gap.==
顺序的填空题 ----- 找到定位就填写完了.
14 as well as -----and
15 storing --- holding
16 holding ---- storing
17 main factor ---- the biggest problem
by far =so far 到目前为止
第二道题 Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
==Choose the correct answer and move it into the gap.==6个中选4个
[ ] 这是啥题型啊?????????????
18 unused parts of harvested crops定位 Nutrients句意定位. return ---- put back into
19 HB 人名(感觉不像人名,名字定位吧),(大写定位), Synthetic fertilisers 复杂名词定位. 明显承上启下句往下看.
Synthetic fertilisers = fertilizer 合成化肥”
20 PF定位, 大定位, addition of mixture 小定位. F'mix
这道题笨蛋了! 题目翻译: 在土壤中加入由PF开发的混合物. 我竟然后面的题没对....答案都直接写出来额
21 zero net 定位,
f 第一段有 负向 定位 global ,因此直接把选项里f去掉.
如果认真扫读其实也看到了nine countries. 和题目无关,删了.
并列排除 同义替换, 跳题,两两定位,
第三题 Which paragraph contains the following information?
Choose the correct answer.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
22 a reference to one person's motivation for a soil-improvement project 一个人参与土壤改良项目的动机
定位, one person motivation soil-improvement.
23 an explanation of how soil stayed healthy before the development of farming 解释在农业发展之前土壤是如何保持健康的
定位 感觉没定位... stay healthy.
这道题有点难啊.. 解析上的意思是, 大自然和人类活动下土壤发展做了对比, 刚好迎合了原文.拿不到正常.能理解
24 examples of different ways of collecting information on soil degradation 收集土壤退化信息的不同方法的例子
题目中有一句话,*NB You may use any letter more than once. *这样的话一般都会有一个双选的.
25 a suggestion for a way of keeping some types of soil safe in the near future 关于在不久的将来保持某些类型土壤安全的方法的建议
26 a reason why it is difficult to provide an overview of soil degradation 难以提供土壤退化概况的原因之一
技巧就是 先找好找的,不好找的是真不好找. 软柿子原则;
24 看到NB其实就出来了 不该错
22 没有转换过来,但是也是段落之间 50%正确率猜吧.
定位 -最优答案 -顺序原则 -同义转换