d

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2022/07/31阅读:12主题:默认主题

Spring的Factories机制介绍

在看本节文章之前,建议大家先去了一下java的SPI机制,因为Spring的Factories就是Spring版本的Java Spi,我在关于java基础系列文章中有详细介绍Java SPI机制。 Spring Factories的最重要的功能就是:可以通过配置文件指定Spring容器加载一些特定的组件。

基本概念

什么是Spring Factories

Spring Factories是一种类似于Java SPI的机制,它在META-INF/spring.factories文件中配置接口的实现类名称,然后在程序中读取这些配置文件并实例化。

引用自博客:Java SPI 主要是应用于厂商自定义组件或插件中。在java.util.ServiceLoader的文档里有比较详细的介绍。简单的总结下java SPI机制的思想:我们系统里抽象的各个模块,往往有很多不同的实现方案,比如日志模块、xml解析模块、jdbc模块等方案。面向的对象的设计里,我们一般推荐模块之间基于接口编程,模块之间不对实现类进行硬编码。一旦代码里涉及具体的实现类,就违反了可拔插的原则,如果需要替换一种实现,就需要修改代码。为了实现在模块装配的时候能不在程序里动态指明,这就需要一种服务发现机制。 Java SPI就是提供这样的一个机制:为某个接口寻找服务实现的机制。有点类似IOC的思想,就是将装配的控制权移到程序之外,在模块化设计中这个机制尤其重要。

为什么要有Spring Factories

Spring Factories机制提供了一种解耦容器注入的方式,帮助外部包(独立于spring-boot项目)注册Bean到spring boot项目容器中。

问题:如果想要被Spring容器管理的Bean的路径不再Spring Boot 项目的扫描路径下,那该怎么办呢? 普通解法1:在Spring Boot 项目中配置ComponentScan注解的扫描路径,添加需要被扫描的方法。 普通解法2:通过在Spring Boot 项目中添加@EnableAutoConfiguration注解,并自定义@EnableXXXXConfiguration的注解,通过注解中的方法注入Bean。 普通解法3:在Spring Boot项目中xxxx.................。

这些解法主要思想都如下图所示,虽然已经实现了帮助外部包(独立于spring-boot项目)注册Bean到spring boot项目容器中的功能,但是Spring Boot 项目都需要知道外部包的信息,并在其代码中引入外部包的相关逻辑,如果外部包变更的情况下,Spring Boot 项目也需要跟着变更,Spring Boot和外部包实现直接存在紧耦合关系。

Spring包依赖
Spring包依赖

Spring Factories机制解法:外部包的META-INF/spring.factories文件中添加配置文件,Spring Boot项目会自动扫描这个配置文件,获取外部包的Bean的详细信息。基本思想如下图所示,从图中可以看到,Spring Boot项目中已经不包含外部包的相关逻辑,实现与外部包之间的解耦关系。

Spring的SPI
Spring的SPI

Spring Factories机制原理

核心类SpringFactoriesLoader

从上文可知,Spring Factories机制通过META-INF/spring.factories文件获取相关的实现类的配置信息,而SpringFactoriesLoader的功能就是读取META-INF/spring.factories,并加载配置中的类。SpringFactoriesLoader主要有两个方法:loadFactories和loadFactoryNames。

SpringFactoriesLoader官方说明 : General purpose factory loading mechanism for internal use within the framework.

META-INF/spring.factories中定义了实现类和对应的接口之间的关系,其定义格式如下:

example.MyService=example.MyServiceImpl1,example.MyServiceImpl2 其中的example.MyService为接口全称,example.MyServiceImpl1,example.MyServiceImpl2为两个实现类的全称。

官方说明: SpringFactoriesLoader loads and instantiates factories of a given type from META-INF/spring.factories files which may be present in multiple JAR files in the classpath. The file must be in {@link Properties} format, where the key is the fully qualified name of the interface or abstract class, and the value is a comma-separated list of implementation class names. For example: example.MyService=example.MyServiceImpl1,example.MyServiceImpl2 where {@code example.MyService} is the name of the interface, and {@code MyServiceImpl1} and {@code MyServiceImpl2} are two implementations.

loadFactoryNames

用于按接口获取Spring Factories文件中的实现类的全称,其方法定义如下所示,其中参数factoryType指定了需要获取哪个接口的实现类,classLoader用于读取配置文件资源。 public static List<String> loadFactoryNames(Class<?> factoryType, @Nullable ClassLoader classLoader)

loadFactories

用于按接口获取Spring Factories文件中的实现类的实例,其方法定义如下所示,其中参数factoryType指定了需要获取哪个接口的实现类,classLoader用于读取配置文件资源和加载类。 public static <T> List<T> loadFactories(Class<T> factoryType, @Nullable ClassLoader classLoader)

Spring Boot Factories

Spring boot中默认使用了很多factories机制,主要包含:

  1. ApplicationContextInitializer:用于在spring容器刷新之前初始化Spring ConfigurableApplicationContext的回调接口。
  2. ApplicationListener:用于处理容器初始化各个阶段的事件。
  3. AutoConfigurationImportListener:导入配置类的时候,获取类的详细信息(Listener that can be registered with spring.factories to receive details of imported auto-configurations.)。
  4. AutoConfigurationImportFilter:用于按条件过滤导入的配置类(Filter that can be registered in spring.factories to limit the auto-configuration classes considered. This interface is designed to allow fast removal of auto-configuration classes before their bytecode is even read.)
  5. EnableAutoConfiguration:指定自动加载的配置类列表(Enable auto-configuration of the Spring Application Context, attempting to guess and configure beans that you are likely to need. Auto-configuration classes are usually applied based on your classpath and what beans you have defined. For example, if you have tomcat-embedded.jar on your classpath you are likely to want a TomcatServletWebServerFactory (unless you have defined your own ServletWebServerFactory bean).
  6. FailureAnalyzer:在启动时拦截异常并将其转换为易读的消息,并将其包含在FailureAnalysis中。 Spring Boot为应用程序上下文相关异常、JSR-303验证等提供了此类分析器(A FailureAnalyzer is used to analyze a failure and provide diagnostic information that can be displayed to the user.)
  7. TemplateAvailabilityProvider:模版引擎配置。(Collection of TemplateAvailabilityProvider beans that can be used to check which (if any) templating engine supports a given view. Caches responses unless the spring.template.provider.cache property is set to false.)

自定义Spring Factories机制

本节将使用一个例子来展示Spring Factories机制,案例分为两个项目spring-factories-provider和spring-factories-consume,其中spring-factories-consume可以类比于上文中的Spring Boot项目,包含Bean的接口和Bean的调用,spring-factories-provider可以类比于外部包,包含了bean的实现。项目目录结构如下:

Spring Factories机制
Spring Factories机制

以下为各个文件的内容:

  1. DemoService
public interface DemoService {
    void printName();
}
  1. PrintDemoService
@Service
public class PrintDemoService {
    @PostConstruct
    public void printService(){
        List<String> serviceNames = SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames(DemoService.class,null);
        for (String serviceName:serviceNames){
            System.out.println(serviceName);
        }

        List<DemoService> services = SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactories(DemoService.class,null);
        for (DemoService demoService:services){
            demoService.printName();
        }
    }
}
  1. DemoServiceImpl1
public class DemoServiceImpl1 implements DemoService {
    @Override
    public void printName() {
        System.out.println("This is in demo 1.");
    }
}
  1. DemoServiceImpl2
public class DemoServiceImpl2 implements DemoService {
    @Override
    public void printName() {
        System.out.println("This is in demo 2.");
    }
}
  1. FactoriesApplication
@SpringBootApplication
public class FactoriesApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(FactoriesApplication.classargs);
    }
}
  1. spring.factories
com.wangzemin.learning.factories.interfac.DemoService=\
  com.wangzemin.learning.factories.impl.DemoServiceImpl1,\
  com.wangzemin.learning.factories.impl.DemoServiceImpl2

程序的运行结果如下图所示,可以看到,Factories机制已经成功发挥作用。

在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述

附录:spring boot 自带factories文件示例

# Initializers
org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SharedMetadataReaderFactoryContextInitializer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.logging.ConditionEvaluationReportLoggingListener

# Application Listeners
org.springframework.context.ApplicationListener=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.BackgroundPreinitializer

# Auto Configuration Import Listeners
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfigurationImportListener=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.ConditionEvaluationReportAutoConfigurationImportListener

# Auto Configuration Import Filters
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfigurationImportFilter=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnBeanCondition,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnClassCondition,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnWebApplicationCondition

# Auto Configure
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.admin.SpringApplicationAdminJmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.aop.AopAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.amqp.RabbitAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.batch.BatchAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cache.CacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cassandra.CassandraAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.ConfigurationPropertiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.LifecycleAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.MessageSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.PropertyPlaceholderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.couchbase.CouchbaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.dao.PersistenceExceptionTranslationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ReactiveElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ReactiveElasticsearchRestClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jdbc.JdbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jpa.JpaRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.ldap.LdapRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.solr.SolrRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.rest.RepositoryRestMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.web.SpringDataWebAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRestClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.gson.GsonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.h2.H2ConsoleAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hateoas.HypermediaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastJpaDependencyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.HttpMessageConvertersAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.codec.CodecsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.influx.InfluxDbAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.info.ProjectInfoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.integration.IntegrationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jackson.JacksonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JdbcTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JndiDataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.XADataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JmsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jmx.JmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JndiConnectionFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.activemq.ActiveMQAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.artemis.ArtemisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jersey.JerseyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jooq.JooqAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jsonb.JsonbAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.kafka.KafkaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.availability.ApplicationAvailabilityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.embedded.EmbeddedLdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.LdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.liquibase.LiquibaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderValidatorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.embedded.EmbeddedMongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.HibernateJpaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.quartz.QuartzAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.R2dbcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketRequesterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketStrategiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.UserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityFilterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveUserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.rsocket.RSocketSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.saml2.Saml2RelyingPartyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.sendgrid.SendGridAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.SessionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.servlet.OAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.servlet.OAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.solr.SolrAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskExecutionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskSchedulingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.TransactionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.jta.JtaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.validation.ValidationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.client.RestTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.embedded.EmbeddedWebServerFactoryCustomizerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.HttpHandlerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.ReactiveWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.WebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.error.ErrorWebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.ClientHttpConnectorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.WebClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.MultipartAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.reactive.WebSocketReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.WebServicesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.client.WebServiceTemplateAutoConfiguration

# Failure analyzers
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.FailureAnalyzer=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisUrlSyntaxFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.diagnostics.analyzer.NoSuchBeanDefinitionFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayMigrationScriptMissingFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceBeanCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.HikariDriverConfigurationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.ConnectionFactoryBeanCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.NonUniqueSessionRepositoryFailureAnalyzer

# Template availability providers
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.template.TemplateAvailabilityProvider=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.JspTemplateAvailabilityProvider

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