今天的历史 【2022-11-26】

今天的历史 【2022-11-26】

Catch up quickly on the global stories that matter


弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)告诉一群俄罗斯母亲,他们的儿子在乌克兰的战斗中丧生,他和他们一样“痛苦”。寡妇和母亲是俄罗斯战争中最激烈的批评者之一;这次精心策划的活动旨在表明总统理解他们的担忧。此外,联合国核监督机构表示,乌克兰的四座核电站在周三关闭后已重新连接到电网。

Vladimir Putin told a group of Russian mothers whose sons have died fighting in Ukraine that he shares their “pain”. Widows and mothers have been among the war’s most vociferous critics in Russia; the carefully staged event was meant to show that the president understands their concern. Separately, the UN’s nuclear watchdog said Ukraine’s four nuclear power stations had been reconnected to the electricity grid after going offline on Wednesday.


以色列新任总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡(Binyamin Netanyahu)在利库德党(Likud)与极右翼犹太力量党(Jewish Power)签署第一份联合协议后,开始组建政府。根据最初的协议,JP 党领导人伊塔马尔·本·格维尔(Itamar Ben Gvir)将成为警察部长,并加入国家安全内阁。新政府看起来将成为以色列历史上最右翼的政府。 Israel’s incoming prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, moved towards forming a government as his Likud party signed its first coalition deal with the far-right Jewish Power party. Under the initial pact, which does not finalise the full coalition, JP’s leader, Itamar Ben-Gvir, will become police minister and join the country’s security cabinet. The new government looks set to be the most right-wing in Israel’s history.


据追踪示威活动的活动人士称,周五祈祷后,伊朗安全官员向东南部锡斯坦-俾路支省的抗议者开枪,造成数十人伤亡。与此同时,伊斯兰革命卫队向该国北部的库尔德地区部署了更多士兵。9 月 16 日,一名被警方拘留的 22 岁库尔德妇女被杀,引发了伊朗的抗议活动。 Iranian security officials fired at protesters in the south-eastern province of Sistan-Baluchistan after Friday prayers, leaving dozens of casualties, according to activists tracking the demonstrations. Meanwhile the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps deployed more soldiers to Kurdish regions in the north of the country. Iran’s protests were sparked by the killing of a 22-year-old Kurdish woman in police custody on September 16th.


德国第三季度经济增长超过预期,因为天然气价格下跌似乎打消了对能源危机的担忧。根据联邦统计机构 Destatis 的数据,GDP 增长了 0.4%,超过了早先预测的 0.3%。但经济环境仍然不是很好。经济衰退仍在意料之中,寒冷的冬天即将到来。 Germany’s economy grew by more than expected in the third quarter, as falling gas prices seemingly staved off concerns about an energy crisis. GDP rose by 0.4%, according to Destatis, the federal statistics agency, exceeding earlier predictions of 0.3%. But the economic climate remains inhospitable. A recession is still expected and a cold winter lies ahead.


秘鲁总统佩德罗·卡斯蒂略(Pedro Castillo)接受了其总理兼盟友阿尼巴尔·托雷斯(Aníbal Torres)的辞呈,与该国国会的对峙仍在继续。(托雷斯先生在未能获得实地信任投票后辞职。)反对党议员两次弹劾卡斯蒂略先生,但都没有解除他的权力。这位左翼领导人现在必须任命自 2021 7 月上任以来的第五任首相。 Peru’s president, Pedro Castillo, accepted the resignation of Aníbal Torres, his prime minister and ally, as a stand-off with the country’s Congress continues. (Mr Torres quit after failing to get a confidence vote off the ground.) Opposition parliamentarians have twice impeached Mr Castillo without removing him from power. The leftist leader must now appoint his fifth prime minister since taking office in July 2021.

【中国】【汽车】特斯拉在中国召回 8 万多辆汽车

中国监管机构表示,由于安全带和电池软件存在问题,特斯拉正在中国召回 8 万多辆汽车。据当局称,受影响的车辆是在 2013 年至 2020 年间进口到中国的。中国对美国电动汽车制造商越来越重要;去年,该公司在中国的收入翻了一番,达到近 140 亿美元。 Regulators in China said that Tesla is recalling more than 80,000 vehicles in the country because of problems affecting their seatbelts and battery software. The affected vehicles were imported to China between 2013 to 2020, according to the authorities. China is increasingly important to the American electric-car manufacturer; its revenues in the country doubled last year to nearly $14bn.


足球世界杯:美国足球队在世界杯上保持了对英格兰队的不败纪录,两队以 0-0 的比分战平,这是该比赛前 20 场比赛中的第五场。伊朗球员在与威尔士队比赛前唱了国歌,他们无视政府对抗议活动的残酷镇压,选择不参加之前的比赛。他们以两个迟到的进球继续获胜。非洲冠军塞内加尔轻松击败东道主卡塔尔。 Football World Cup: America’s footballers maintained their unbeaten record against England at World Cups, as the teams played out a turgid 0-0 draw, the fifth in the competition’s first 20 matches. Iran’s players sang the national anthem before playing Wales, having chosen not to at their previous fixture in defiance of their government’s brutal crackdown on protests. They went on to win with two late goals. Senegal, African champions, easily beat Qatar, the hosts.


台湾地方选举。台湾星期六进行投票。公民们将选出九级地方政府,从市长到区长,并参加全民投票,决定人们投票和参选的最低年龄。台湾的地方选举活动往往侧重于公共交通和医疗保健等日常问题。一个通常不会出现的话题是中国,中国将台湾视为一个叛变的省份。但随着中国越来越好战的言辞刺激着台湾的神经,今年一些民进党候选人公开承诺,一旦发生入侵,他们将保卫台湾,拒绝投降。 **Taiwan’s local elections** Taiwan goes to the polls on Saturday. Citizens will elect nine levels of local government, from city mayors to borough chiefs, and take part in a referendum on the minimum ages at which people may vote and run for office. Local-election campaigns in Taiwan tend to focus on quotidian issues like public transport and health care. One topic that does not usually feature is China, which regards Taiwan as a renegade province. But with China’s increasingly belligerent rhetoric jangling Taiwanese nerves, this year some Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) candidates have publicly pledged that in the event of an invasion they would defend the island and refuse to surrender.

这种鹰派立场在过去帮助民进党赢得了反对支持统一的国民党的大选。尽管如此,周六大多数选民将在地方治理问题上投票。但这场竞选活动可能预示着 2024 年台湾总统大选,届时政客们对中国的看法将比以往任何时候都重要。 Such hawkish stances have helped the DPP win general elections against the pro-unification Nationalist Party in the past. For all that, on Saturday most voters will be casting their votes on local-governance issues. But the campaign may foreshadow Taiwan’s 2024 presidential election, at which politicians’ views on China will matter more than ever.


佐治亚州前期投票。周六,佐治亚州的选民开始返回投票站挑选参议员。由于民主党现任总统拉斐尔·沃诺克(Raphael Warnock)和他的共和党挑战者赫歇尔·沃克(Herschel Walker)都没有在本月初的中期选举中获得多数席位,他们的竞选已经进入第二轮。投票将于 12 月 6 日结束。 **Early voting opens in Georgia** On Saturday voters in Georgia begin to return to the polls to pick a senator. Since neither Raphael Warnock, the Democratic incumbent, nor Herschel Walker, his Republican challenger, secured a majority at the midterms earlier this month, their race has gone to a run-off. Voting ends on December 6th.

共和党人本应赢得这一席位,因为他们对民主党在华盛顿控制国会感到不满。在佐治亚州州长竞选中,共和党候选人布莱恩·坎普以 8 个百分点的优势连任。前美国足球明星沃克先生的失败反映了他糟糕的竞选活动,尽管他公开表示支持禁止堕胎,但他仍为前女友的堕胎买单。 Republicans should have clinched the seat, amid dissatisfaction with Democratic control of Congress in Washington. In the governor’s race in Georgia the Republican candidate, Brian Kemp, was re-elected by eight percentage points. That Mr Walker, a former American-football star, fell short reflects his awful campaign, marred by allegations that he paid for ex-girlfriends’ abortions despite his avowed support for a ban on the procedure.

现在,沃克先生希望赢得 20 万人中的一些人,这些人投票支持坎普先生,但不支持他。唐纳德·特朗普避开了这个州。这可能有助于沃克的机会:前总统古怪的支持者在中期选举中损害了共和党人。但这也使得佐治亚州的第二轮决选变得不那么关键:民主党已经保留了参议院。 Now Mr Walker hopes to win over some of the 200,000 people who voted for Mr Kemp but not for him. Donald Trump has steered clear of the state. That may help Mr Walker’s chances: the former president’s wacky endorsees damaged Republicans in the midterms. But that also makes Georgia’s run-off less critical than it otherwise would have been: Democrats have already retained the Senate.


南·戈尔丁(Nan Goldin)《所有的美丽和血腥》(All The Beauty and The Bloodshed)的艺术和行动主义描绘了一位坦率的摄影大师,他在阿片类药物危机的核心与亿万富翁们展开了对抗。在 20 世纪 80 年代,南·戈尔丁(Nan Goldin)以她这样的波西米亚年轻外来者的亲密形象而闻名。几年前,她揭露了自己与 OxyContin 成瘾的近乎致命的关系,并发起了对 Sackler 家族的抗议,Sackler 创立并拥有制造这种药物的普渡制药公司(Purdue Pharma)。 **The art and activism of Nan Goldin** “All the Beauty and the Bloodshed” profiles a master of candid photography who went on to confront the billionaires at the heart of the opioid crisis. In the 1980s Nan Goldin made her name with disarmingly intimate images of bohemian young outsiders like herself. A few years ago she revealed her own near-fatal brush with OxyContin addiction, and launched a protest against the Sackler family, who founded and owned Purdue Pharma, which made the drug.

这部纪录片于周三在美国首播,在戈尔丁女士讲述她痛苦的成长过程时,它保持了一种平静的强度:一个深爱的妹妹自杀,郊区父母被拒绝,寄养家庭。该片由劳拉·普瓦特拉斯(Laura Poitras)执导,她展示了戈尔丁女士如何回应,迫使博物馆将萨克勒夫妇的名字从铭牌上删除。这部电影把这位艺术家描绘成了一个恋人和斗士,坚韧而温柔,什么都不隐瞒。 The documentary, which premiered in America on Wednesday, maintains a hushed intensity as Ms Goldin recounts her traumatic upbringing: a beloved sister’s suicide, suburban parents in denial, foster homes. It is directed by Laura Poitras, who shows how Ms Goldin responded by pressing museums into removing the Sacklers’ name from their nameplates. The film is a portrait of the artist as lover and fighter, tough and tender, and hiding nothing.


《花生》的乐趣。谁是小说中最伟大的狗?《绿野仙踪》中的拉西、林丁丁和多萝西的托托?所有人都有自己的魅力。但答案肯定是史努比。他的创作者查尔斯·舒尔茨(Charles Schulz)出生于 100 年前的周六,他将自己在明尼苏达州的童年时光翻译成了《花生》(Peanuts),这是一部动画片,儿童在其中面对令人不安的事实,几乎不受成人干预。舒尔茨将儿时的宠物斯派克(Spike)重新想象成一只小猎犬:倒霉的查理·布朗(Charlie Brown)的忠实伴侣。斯派克是一只顽皮的杂种狗。 **The pleasures of “Peanuts”** Who is the greatest dog in fiction? Lassie, Rin Tin Tin and Dorothy’s Toto in “The Wizard of Oz”? All have their appeal. But the answer is surely Snoopy. His creator, Charles Schulz, born 100 years ago on Saturday, translated his dour Minnesotan childhood into “Peanuts”, a cartoon strip in which children confront uncomfortable truths virtually free from adult intervention. Schulz reimagined his boyhood pet, Spike, a playful mongrel, as a beagle: the loyal companion of the hapless Charlie Brown.

舒尔茨笔下的人物,大脑袋和小躯干,看起来很脆弱。他们忧郁地沉思着单恋和幸福的难以捉摸。但史努比是一个阳光的存在,是唯一一个被允许接吻的“花生”角色。除了鼓励许多人养狗,舒尔茨的《史努比》还鼓励其他艺术家给自己的动物创作注入心理深度。到 2000 年舒尔茨去世时,他的工资已经超过了花生,史努比的商品每年为他净赚 3000 万至 4000 万美元。 Schulz’s human characters, with their large heads and tiny torsos, look vulnerable. They muse bleakly about unrequited love and the elusive nature of happiness. But Snoopy is a sunny presence, the only “Peanuts” character allowed to give kisses. Besides inspiring many people to own a dog, Schulz’s Snoopy encouraged other artists to imbue their own animal creations with psychological depth. And Schulz was paid more than peanuts—by the time he died in 2000, Snoopy merchandise was netting him $30m-40m a year.


周末简介:沙特足球队经理 HervéRenard。在卡塔尔举行的世界杯上,沙特球迷的人数仅次于美国人和东道主。靠近卡塔尔当然会有所帮助,但没有人应该怀疑沙特人对这场比赛的热情。然而,直到本周,他们的国家队在这项运动的最大舞台上几乎没有表现出来。周二,众所周知的绿猎鹰队震惊了阿根廷队,成为赛前热门。 **Weekend profile: Hervé Renard, manager of the Saudi football team** At the World Cup in Qatar, Saudi fans are outnumbered only by Americans and those of the hosts. Proximity to Qatar certainly helps, but no one should doubt the Saudis’ passion for the game. Yet their national team had little to show for it on the sport’s biggest stage—until this week. On Tuesday the Green Falcons, as they are known, shocked Argentina, among the pre-tournament favourites.

萨勒曼国王给工人们放了一天假以示庆祝,这只是该国统治者对这项运动承诺的一个标志。2021,沙特公共投资基金会(Saudi Public Investment Fund)由王储穆罕默德·本·萨勒曼(Mohammad bin Salman)担任主席,收购了英国英超球队纽卡斯尔联队(Newcastle United)。PIF 的资金也涌入了沙特阿拉伯国内联赛,吸引了数以万计的观众。沙特官员正计划大胆申办 2030 年世界杯。 King Salman gave workers the day off in celebration, just one sign of the commitment the country’s rulers have shown to the sport. In 2021 the Saudi Public Investment Fund, chaired by Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, bought Newcastle United, a team in England’s Premier League. PIF money has also poured into Saudi Arabia’s domestic league, which attracts tens of thousands of spectators. And Saudi officials are plotting an audacious bid to host the World Cup in 2030.

尽管如此,沙特人最精明的决定可能是 2019 年任命赫夫·雷纳德(HervéRenard)为国家队经理。在对阵阿根廷的比赛中,评论员们发现他保持高防守线的战术很幼稚,但事实证明,这在球场上是压倒一切的。据一名球员表示,在沙特落后的情况下,雷纳德在中场休息时鼓舞人心的鼓舞讲话也很有帮助。 For all that, the Saudis’ most astute decision may prove to be the appointment, in 2019, of Hervé Renard as manager of the national team. Against Argentina, commentators found his tactic of holding a high defensive line naive, but it proved overpowering on the pitch. Mr Renard’s inspirational pep talk at half-time, when Saudi Arabia were trailing, was also instrumental, according to one player.

这场胜利感觉像是雷纳德先生自己旅程的高潮。1999 年,他开始执教法国南部的一支小球队 SC Draguignan,此前他不起眼的职业生涯因伤病而缩短。为了收支平衡,他在训练期间做清洁工,这是他后来所说的“最好的学校”。随后,在亚洲和非洲的其他教练生涯也接踵而至。2012 年,他带领所向披靡的赞比亚赢得了他们的第一场非洲国家杯冠军。三年后,他再次捧起奖杯,这次是在科特迪瓦。 The victory felt like the culmination of Mr Renard’s own journey. In 1999 he began coaching SC Draguignan, a small team in the south of France, after his unremarkable playing career had been cut short by injury. To make ends meet, he worked as a cleaner between training sessions, something he later described as the “best schooling” he ever had. Other coaching stints, in Asia and Africa, followed. In 2012 he led unfancied Zambia to their first African Cup of Nations win. Three years later he took the trophy again, this time with Ivory Coast.

考虑到沙特糟糕的人权记录,雷纳德先生接受沙特工作的决定招致了大量批评。他坚持认为,这类事情已经“改善了很多”,他接受这个角色是出于体育原因,而不是提供的大笔资金。周六,他的球队将迎战波兰队。一场胜利可能会确保沙特队自 1994 年以来在世界杯淘汰赛中获得第一名。如果他们成功,这将强化雷纳德先生的说法,即沙特确实是一个“足球之国”。 Mr Renard’s decision to take the Saudi job earned him plenty of criticism, given the country’s poor human-rights record. He insists such matters have “improved a lot,” and that he accepted the role for sporting reasons, not the significant money on offer. On Saturday his team faces Poland. A win could secure the Saudis’ first place in the World Cup’s knockout stages since 1994. Should they pull it off, that would strengthen Mr Renard’s claim that Saudi Arabia truly is a “country of football”.