阿东lazy

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2022/07/27阅读:17主题:橙心

#yy关于鱼的英文学习

#yy 关于鱼身体部位的英文单词学习【英语学习】

目录

引言

写下这篇文章完全是因为个人在看《老人与海》英文版的时候被各种鱼身体部位弄得云里雾里,虽然知道老人在和鱼搏斗,但是不太清楚在干啥,在一番了解之后,索性系统完整学习下鱼的身体部分单词。

于是我就上了谷歌搜了下“鱼的身体”,结果是....谷歌一个靠谱的结果也没查到。

接着我转化思路,觉得自己有点傻了,我为啥要用中文搜英文单词怎么学,肯定要用英文学习英文怎么学呀!

用上毕生所学 搜了一下“fish body”搜索一下谷歌,然后汇总出这一篇文章......

下面直接开始上课。

鱼的身体解剖

建议看看参考资料的原文,基本内容是翻译自那篇文章来的。

奇怪的是国内英文教学从来没有这种有趣又能学到知识的文章。

鱼可以分为四个部分,背部代表了背侧区域,英文单词叫做Dorsal,近似含义也有脊柱的意思。

鱼头也叫做鱼的头部(这不是废话),头部区域,英文单词叫做 Anterior End,Anterior 是前面的意思,为啥接一个End?不应该是Head么,个人认为老外是把鱼对半分,中间往前到末端的部分叫做鱼的头部,同样Posterior 是后部和背部的意思,往后到臀部结束的部分叫做后端。

吐槽:所以鱼头也可以叫前端,鱼尾也可以叫后端?

所以鱼主要是三部分,头、身体和尾巴,头部包含大脑眼睛和鼻孔以及嘴巴等,身体是鱼的主体,包括骨骼以及内脏,尾巴则是鱼的动力来源,也就是鱼的“腿”。

最后鱼由软骨或者骨骼组成。

鱼类和身体英文词汇

**鱼类英文词汇 **

下面随意列举了一些有关鱼类的名词。

  • BASS 海鲈鱼

  • BELTFISH-带鱼

  • BUFFALOFISH-水牛鱼

  • CARP-鲤鱼

  • CATFISH 鲶鱼

  • CATFISH-鲶鱼

  • COD 鳕鱼

  • COD FILLETS 鳕鱼

鱼身体部分

这个身体构造包含传统鱼类的通用身体构造,因为很多独特的鱼类有各种特殊的身体结构,是介绍不完的。

  • Parts of a fish Scales 鱼鳞

  • Dorsal Fins 背鳍

  • Lateral line 测线

  • Caudal fin 尾鳍

  • Anal fin 臀鳍

  • Pelvic fin 腹鳍 (骨盆鳍)

  • Pectoral Fin 胸鳍

  • Gill 鱼鳃

  • Eye 眼睛

  • Eyes 眼睛

  • gill 鱼鳃

  • gill cover 鱼鳃

  • Mouth 嘴巴

  • Scales 尺度

  • Nostril 鼻孔

下面是对应的形象图:

image-20220726215253172
image-20220726215253172
image-20220726215313995
image-20220726215313995

下面的单词是正文中关于鱼身体的主要部分介绍,感兴趣可以阅读和尝试翻译一下解释英文,也是锻炼英语能力的一种方式 - 英英翻译。

Anal fin

The anal fin is located on the ventral area (bottom) of the fish, towards the tail. This fin helps to stabilize the fish and provide balance when swimming.

臀鳍位于鱼的腹侧区域,朝向尾部,主要作用是稳定鱼的前进方向并且游泳的时候提供平衡

Caudal fin

The caudal fin is also known as the tail fin. This fin helps to propel the fish through water and steer from side to side.

side to side:左右摇摆

尾鳍也称为尾鳍。 该鳍有助于推动鱼在水中前进并左右转向。

Dorsal fin

Dorsal fins are located on the top of the fish. These fins help to stabilize the fish and control its movement through the water. They stop the fish from rolling on its side by increasing the lateral surface of the body.

背鳍位于鱼的顶部。这些鳍有助于稳定鱼并控制其在水中的运动。它们通过增加身体的侧表面来防止侧翻。

Eyes

Fish have two eyes, which are used to detect movement and prey in their surroundings. They also look for mates, shelter and need to be able to identify danger.

Many species of fish have eyes that are located on either side of the head, and they allow the fish to see in all directions.

鱼有两只眼睛,用于检测周围的运动和猎物。 他们还寻找伴侣、避难所,并且需要能够识别危险。

许多鱼类的眼睛位于头部的两侧,它们可以让鱼看到各个方向。

Gill

The gills are located on either side of the fish’s head. They are used to extract oxygen from water and expel carbon dioxide.

鳃位于鱼头的两侧。 它们用于从水中提取氧气并排出二氧化碳。

Gill cover

The gill cover (operculum) is a flap of skin that covers the gills. This helps to protect the gills, and it serves a role in respiration.

鳃盖(鳃盖)是覆盖鳃的皮瓣。 这有助于保护鳃,并在呼吸中发挥作用。

Lateral line

The lateral line is a series of pores that run along the length of the fish’s body. These pores are used to detect vibrations in the water and sense water movements.

侧线是沿着鱼体长度延伸的一系列毛孔。 这些孔隙用于检测水中的振动并感知水的运动。

Mouth

The mouth is located at the front of the fish’s head. It is used for eating and breathing.

嘴位于鱼头的前部。 它用于进食和呼吸。

Nostril

The nostrils (also called nares) are located on the top of the head, allowing the fish to smell the water. The nostrils do not play a role in the respiration process.

By smelling the water, fish can detect if another fish is injured and if they need to flee from predators.

Smelling the water can also help them detect chemicals in the water and help them find their way back home. The salmon uses its sense of smell to help it get back to the place it was born!

鼻孔(也称为鼻孔)位于头顶,可以让鱼闻到水的味道。 鼻孔在呼吸过程中不起任何作用

通过闻水,鱼可以检测出另一条鱼是否受伤以及是否需要逃离捕食者。

闻水还可以帮助他们检测水中的化学物质并帮助他们找到回家的路。 鲑鱼用它的嗅觉帮助它回到它出生的地方!

Pectoral fin

The pectoral fins are located on either side of the fish’s body. These are the equivalent of human arms!

They are used for steering and moving forward.

胸鳍位于鱼体的两侧。 这些相当于人类的武器!

它们用于转向和前进。

Pelvic fin

The pelvic fins are paired and located at the ventral (bottom) of the fish. They are used for stability and help the fish stop moving.

腹鳍成对并位于鱼的腹侧(底部)。 它们用于稳定并帮助鱼停止移动。

Scales

Scales are thin, protective plates that cover the fish’s body. They help to reduce drag in water (the force that opposes movement) and protect the fish from predators.

鳞片是覆盖鱼体的薄保护板。 它们有助于减少水中的阻力(反对运动的力量)并保护鱼类免受捕食者的侵害。

鱼身体进阶解剖

进阶部分来自一篇Fish: Structure and Function Study Guide 的文章。下面是个人学习记录。

Fish Anatomy

这个解剖图应该算是非常详细到介绍了鱼身体部分的详细内容了,建议先查查单词再看下面的内容。

image-20220726215324061
image-20220726215324061

图片原始来源地址:

Fish Internal Organ And External View (anatomynote.com)[1]

这里从anal fin开始逆时针介绍一圈所有部位的单词含义:

  • anal fin
  • fin rays:鳍鳐【,
    • spiny:带刺的部分
    • soft:软骨部分
  • urogenital aperture:泌尿生殖孔
  • anus:肛门
  • pelvic fins:腹鳍
  • spleen:幽门盲肠
  • intestine:体腔
  • pyloric caeca:胆囊
  • coelom:
  • gall bladder:
  • liver:肝
  • heart:心脏
  • ventral aorta:腹主动脉
  • ribs:肋骨
  • nostrils:鼻孔
  • pharynx with gills:有鳃的咽
  • skull:颅骨
  • dorsal aorta:背主动脉
  • vertebrae:椎骨
  • stomach:胃
  • trunk muscles:躯干肌肉
  • dorsal fins:背鳍
    • spiny:带刺的部分
    • soft:软骨部分
  • kidney:肾脏
  • swim bladder:鳔
  • tail muscles:尾部肌肉
  • caudal fin:尾鳍

这里直接引用文章原文关于鱼的身体结构总结:

  • Fishes are water animals having a streamlined body that helps them swim without much resistance in the water, and they also have fins to assist them in swimming.

  • They are bilaterally symmetrical organisms.

  • They are triploblastic organisms.

  • Scales and bony plates cover the fish's body.

  • 鱼是水生动物,具有流线型的身体,可以帮助它们在水中游泳而不会有太大的阻力,并且它们也有鳍来帮助它们游泳。

  • 它们是双侧对称的生物体。

  • 它们是三叶成形生物。

  • 鳞片和骨板覆盖着鱼的身体。

下面的内容解释了鱼身体主要部位的功能和作用。

Exoskeleton:

  • Scales and bony plates cover the fish's body.

  • Scales are recognized as a fish's identity card because of their many roles.

  • The genesis of scales is mesodermal.

  • Siluriformes fishes have no scales (catfishes), and few fishes (major carps) have scales on their heads.

外骨骼:

  • 鳞片和骨板覆盖了鱼的身体。

  • 鳞片因其多种作用而被公认为鱼的身份证。

  • 鳞片的起源是中胚层。

  • 鲶形目鱼类(鲶鱼)没有鳞片,少数鱼类(大型鲤鱼)的头上有鳞片。

Fins:

  • Fins help in swimming and balance.

  • Fin rays support the fins, and fins feature both spiky and soft rays.

  • Fins without fin rays are known as adipose fins (Mystus).

  • Fins are divided into two categories: paired and unpaired fins.

  • Pectoral and pelvic or ventral fins are paired fins.

  • The dorsal, anal, and caudal fins are the only ones that aren't paired.

  • Fins are either typical or modified in the majority of fish.

鳍:

  • 脚蹼有助于游泳和平衡。

  • 鳍线支撑鳍,鳍具有尖刺和柔和的线条。

  • 没有鳍条的鳍被称为脂肪鳍(Mystus)。

  • 鳍片分为两类:成对和不成对的鳍片

  • 胸鳍和腹鳍是成对的鳍。

  • 背鳍、臀鳍和尾鳍是唯一不成对的。

  • 大多数鱼的鳍(形状)是传统的或经过改良的。

Tail:

  • During swimming, the tail is important for shifting direction.

  • The caudal fin is the last fin on the tail.

  • The caudal fin can be forked, circular, or confluent with the dorsal and anal fins.

尾巴:

  • 在游泳过程中,尾巴对于改变方向很重要。

  • 尾鳍是尾巴上的最后一个鳍。

  • 尾鳍可以是叉形、圆形或与背鳍和臀鳍汇合。

Closed circulatory system:

  • Fishes have a closed circulatory system[2].

  • The heart is divided into two chambers, is venous and tubular, and has either a conus or bulbous arteriosus and RBCs have a biconvex shape.

封闭循环系统:

  • 鱼类有一个封闭的[循环系统](https://www.inspiritvr.com/general-bio/human-biology/circulatory-system-study-guide “循环系统”)。

  • 心脏分为两个腔室,呈静脉和管状,有圆锥形或球状动脉,红细胞呈双凸形。

Nervous system:

  • Cerebrum is not well developed in the nervous system, and sharks, in particular, have well-developed olfactory lobes.

  • There are ten pairs of cranial nerves discovered.

神经系统:

  • (鱼的)神经系统中脑部发育不良,但是也有特例,比如鲨鱼的嗅觉叶发育良好。

  • 发现了十对/颅神经。(不是十,对颅神经)

颅神经:英文对照(cranial nerves[nɜrv kreɪniəl]),颅神经又称“脑神经”。人体有12对脑神经,即有24条,属周围神经,从脑内发出的左右成对的神经

Respiration:

  • Branchial respiration[3] occurs via gills.

  • The branchial chamber is where the gills are found.

  • There are 5-7 gills in cartilaginous fishes, but in teleosts, there are 3- 5 gills.

  • Gill arch supports each gill, gill lamellae facilitate gaseous exchange, and gill rakers are extensively developed in plankton-feeding fishes, where they serve as a filter.

  • In cartilaginous fishes, the branchial system is open, but the branchial system is closed in bony fishes.

  • The operculum is exclusively seen in bony fish.

  • There are many pairs of external branchial apertures, but there is only one pair in bony fishes.

  • Hemoglobin is a pigment found in the blood.

呼吸:

  • 鳃[呼吸](https://www.inspiritvr.com/ap-bio/unit-3/cellular-respiration-study-guide“呼吸”)通过鳃发生。

  • 鳃腔是发现鳃的地方。

  • 软骨鱼类有 5-7 个鳃,而硬骨鱼有 3-5 个鳃。

  • 鳃弓支撑每个鳃,鳃片促进气体交换,鳃耙广泛用于以浮游生物为食的鱼类,用作过滤器。

  • 在软骨鱼类中,鳃系统是开放的,但在硬骨鱼类中,鳃系统是封闭的。

  • 鳃盖仅见于硬骨鱼。

  • 外鳃孔有很多对,而硬骨鱼只有一对。

  • 血红蛋白是血液中的一种色素。

鳃弓:脊椎动物颈部两侧横走地皱襞。原为呼吸器官,盲鳗有15对,七鳃鳗有8对,软骨鱼类一般有7对,少数有9对,硬骨鱼、两栖类、爬行类各为6对,鸟类、哺乳类各5对,在发生地一定时期出现,或终生存在

Excretion:

  • Mesonephric kidneys are found in ammonotelic animals' excretory systems.

  • Marine fish keep urea in their blood to stay in an isotonic state with saltwater.

排泄:

  • 中肾存在于氨味的动物的排泄系统中。
  • 海鱼将尿素保留在血液中,以与盐水保持等渗状态。

等渗:渗透量相当于血浆渗透量的溶液,如0.9%NaCl溶液和5%葡萄糖溶液。 对于人来说,等渗脱水是水和钠成比例丢失,血清钠135-145mmol/L,病因见于大量呕吐,腹泻,胃肠道引流等消化液丢失及大面积烧伤及剥脱性皮炎等。

中肾:中肾是鱼类和两栖类成体阶段执行排泄机能的器官,位于前肾的后方

脊椎动物排泄系统,其主要部分为一对发达的肾脏(kidney)。从低等种类到高等种类,根据发展程度的不同,肾脏可以区分为三种类型,即前肾(pronephron),中肾(mesonephron)和后肾(metanephros)。

肾小体和它的排泄小管一起组成一个泌尿机能的基本构造,特称为肾单位(nephron)。

Economic Importance:

  • They're eaten worldwide, and the fish liver is the primary source of vitamin A and D-rich liver oil.

  • Fish oils are utilized externally in the soap industry and tanneries.

  • Beautifully colored fishes are currently the vogue in aquariums.

经济重要性:

  • 它们在世界范围内都有食用,鱼肝是富含维生素 A 和 D 的肝油的主要来源。

  • 鱼油在肥皂工业和制革厂的外部使用。

  • 颜色漂亮的鱼目前是水族馆的时尚。

鱼类保护协会表示强烈前者

完形填空

最后来做一些完形填空整理一下上面学习的内容。

image-20220726215356438
image-20220726215356438
image-20220726215406180
image-20220726215406180

总结

写在最后

写下这篇笔记有点像学生时代课堂上课,然而国内终究没有这样有趣的文章,不然也不至于对于英语完全失去兴趣。

最后说一下学习英语的建议,除了背单词和练习语法外好像最快的方式是找个老外天天和他聊天,当然对于生活在国内的普通人不太现实,大多数还算要看新闻和各种影视剧来学习吧。

但是从我个人的角度建议是背单词和找一些符合自己兴趣并且在刚好能看懂但是有不少生词的资料,然后“挥刀自宫”硬啃,刚开始自虐可能会很痛苦,但是自虐久了会发现这样的成长方式是最快的,毕竟只有跳出舒适区才能快速成长。

不论如何,都要找到兴趣点,学习陌生的内容好奇心+兴趣是最好的老师。

下课!

更多资料:

鱼身体认识

有点类似小学课堂,文章写得比较通俗易懂,比较有意思。

13 Body Parts of a Fish and Their Uses (Common Fish Anatomy) | TPR Teaching[4]

鱼身体进阶资料参考

如果上面鱼身体的部分了解的差不多了,则可以进一步了解。

Fish: Structure and Function Study Guide | Inspirit (inspiritvr.com)[5]

其他资料补充

鱼进阶解剖的原文,挺有意思的。

The Anatomy of Fish (thesprucepets.com)[6]

参考资料

[1]

Fish Internal Organ And External View (anatomynote.com): https://anatomynote.com/animal-anatomy/marine-animal-anatomy/fish/fish-internal-organ-and-external-view/

[2]

circulatory system: https://www.inspiritvr.com/general-bio/human-biology/circulatory-system-study-guide

[3]

respiration: https://www.inspiritvr.com/ap-bio/unit-3/cellular-respiration-study-guide

[4]

13 Body Parts of a Fish and Their Uses (Common Fish Anatomy) | TPR Teaching: https://www.tprteaching.com/parts-of-fish/

[5]

Fish: Structure and Function Study Guide | Inspirit (inspiritvr.com): https://www.inspiritvr.com/general-bio/vertebrates/fish-structure-and-function-study-guide

[6]

The Anatomy of Fish (thesprucepets.com): https://www.thesprucepets.com/fish-anatomy-4102466

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阿东lazy
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