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2022/03/09阅读:36主题:红绯

The Return of Artificial Intelligence

The Return of Artificial Intelligence

文章太长了,也比较难我就把段落分开精读了~~~~~~~能力有限保证不了阅读质量了~

It is becoming acceptable again to talk of computers performing

human tasks such as problem-solving and pattern-recognition

现在人们又开始接受(谈及)计算机执行人工任务,如解决问题和模式识别

perform 执行,履行,表演,表现.

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A

  • After years in the wilderness, the term 'artificial intelligence' (AI) seems poised to make a comeback.

  • 在沉寂多年之后,“人工智能”(AI)一词似乎要卷土重来了

  • AI was big in the 1980s but vanished in the 1990s. It re-entered public consciousness with the release of AI, a movie about a robot boy. This has ignited public debate about AI, but the term is also being used once more within the computer industry.

  • AI兴盛于20世纪80年代消失于90年代. AI重新获得公众的关注是因为AI的公映. 一部关于机器人小男孩的电影.这激起了公众对AI的讨论,但是这个名词在计算机行业也再次被使用

这块为什么用but啊...

  • Researchers, executives and marketing people are now using the expression without irony or inverted commas. And it is not always hype.
  • 研究者,管理人员,市场人员如今都开始(主动)的使用这个表达,没嘲讽和反转.它其实并不总是炒作.

证明这次是真的火了,不是炒作起来的.

  • The term is being applied, with some justification, to products that depend on technology that was originally developed by AI researchers. Admittedly, the rehabilitation of the term has a long way to go, and some firms still prefer to avoid using it. But the fact that others are starting to use it again suggests that AI has moved on from being seen as an over-ambitious and under-achieving field of research.
  • 这个名词如今被合理的使用,尤其用在哪些依赖于最新AI科技的产品.不可否认的,AI的恢复还需要一定努力,一些公司仍然避免使用它. 但其他人开始再次使用人工智能的事实表明,人工智能已不再被视为一个雄心勃勃、成就不足的研究领域。

(最后一句是这段的观点)

After years in the wilderness 沉寂了这么多年

term 术语,专有名词

poised 镇定的,自信的,摆好姿势的

vanished 销声匿迹的

release 释放, 公映.发布

ignite 点燃;激起

inverted 反转

hype 炒作.

executives 行政的, 高管的,经营管理的

rehabilitation 康复;(权利名誉的)恢复

B

  • The field was launched, and the term ‘artificial intelligence’ coined, at a conference in 1956 by a group of researchers that included Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon and Alan Newell, all of whom went on to become leading figures in the field.
  • 这个领域开启了AI这个词被创造出来了. 1956年这群人一起开了个会,然后这群人全部都成为AI领域的领军人物.
  • The expression provided an attractive but informative name for a research programme that encompassed such previously disparate fields as operations research, cybernetics, logic and computer science.
  • 这个表达为一个包含了运筹学、控制论、逻辑学和计算机科学等以前毫不相干的领域的研究项目提供了一个吸引人但内容丰富的名字 // 真的读不懂这句话....尽力了.感觉是截出来的一段读不通顺.
  • The goal they shared was an attempt to capture or mimic human abilities using machines. That said, different groups of researchers attacked different problems, from speech recognition to chess playing, in different ways; AI unified the field in name only. But it was a term that captured the public imagination.
  • 这群人分享出来的目标是去获取和模仿人类使用机器.这就说,不同的研究者面对不同的问题.从语音辨别到下象棋.AI统一这个领域的只有这个名词而已.但是就因为这个名词吸引了公众想象.

这段讲了一下AI这个词被谁创建的.

coined 铸币,(新词)被创造

encompassed 包围;促成实现.

capture or mimic 抓获或者模仿.

unified 统一的

C

  • Most researchers agree that AI peaked around 1985. A public reared on science-fiction movies and excited by the growing power of computers had high expectations.
  • 很多研究者认同AI1985年左右达到巅峰. 看科幻电影长大的人,被电脑强大的实力所震撼因此对其有很高的期待.
  • For years, AI researchers had implied that a breakthrough was just around the corner. Marvin Minsky said in 1967 that within a generation the problem of creating ‘artificial intelligence’ would be substantially solved.
  • 好些年过去了, AI研究者暗示快要重大突破了! MM在1967年说 创造AI的问题将会实质性的解决,并且不会传到下一代.// 致敬tw问题
  • Prototypes of medical-diagnosis programs and speech recognition software appeared to be making progress. It proved to be a false dawn.
  • 医疗诊断项目的原型和语音识别的原型似乎有突破了.事实证明这是个虚假的黎明.

这篇文章的but真的好奇怪啊!语义转折了但是不用but,没转折疯狂用but.

  • Thinking computers and household robots failed to materialise, and a backlash ensued. ‘There was undue optimism in the early 1980s,’ says David Leake, a researcher at Indiana University.
  • 思维电脑家用机器人物质化失败,随之而来的是强烈反作用.DL说人们在80年代早期太过于乐观了.
  • ‘Then when people realised these were hard problems, there was retrenchment. By the late 1980s, the term AI was being avoided by many researchers, who opted instead to align themselves with specific sub-disciplines such as neural networks, agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on.’
  • 当人们意识到这是很难的问题,就开始萎靡. 80年代末AI这个词就被一些研究者阻止了.这些研究者反而是选择将他们自己和特定子学科联系起来的.如神经网络、代理技术、基于案例的推理

(我发现总结段落大意把最后一句承上启下句要去掉看)1.重新开启AI 2.AI谁创造的是干哈的.3.AI并不是那么美好.还有很多问题.

reared on 依赖...长大

around the corner 即将来临,在拐角.

imply 暗示

substantially实质性的

materialise 物质化

ensue 继而发生

backlash 强烈反应,反作用;反冲

undue 过分的;不适当的

optimism 乐观的

retrenchment 节省删除.

D

  • Ironically, in some ways AI was a victim of its own success. Whenever an apparently mundane problem was solved, such as building a system that could land an aircraft unattended, the problem was deemed not to have been AI in the first place.
  • 讽刺的是,在某些方面AI是自己成功的受害者.无论何时只要一个普通的问题被解决,比如构造一个无人机降落系统,人们就会认为这个问题不属于AI从一开始.
  • ‘If it works, it can’t be AI,’ as Dr Leake characterises it. The effect of repeatedly moving the goal-posts in this way was that AI came to refer to ‘blue-sky’ research that was still years away from commercialisation.
  • (受不了了,不直译了)如果项目成功那么必然不属于AI,这已经被定性了.这种不断改变AI目标的措施导致AI离商业化还很远.
  • Researchers joked that AI stood for ‘almost implemented’. Meanwhile, the technologies that made it onto the market, such as speech recognition, language translation and decision-support software, were no longer regarded as AI. Yet all three once fell well within the umbrella of AI research.
  • 有研究者取笑AI, 说他代表了几乎实现. 同时技术推动AI到了市场上,比如语音识别,翻译,和决策支持软件,不在认为属于AI.但是这些全部都是AI范畴的.

依旧说AI实现的问题.

mundane 单调的普通的

unattended 无人看管的,无人照料的

deem 认为

E

  • But the tide may now be turning, according to Dr Leake. HNC Software of San Diego, backed by a government agency, reckon that their new approach to artificial intelligence is the most powerful and promising approach ever discovered.
  • 但是这个潮流很快就被改变了.L认为他们的新的人工智能方式是最有希望最有前途的方式.
  • HNC claim that their system, based on a cluster of 30 processors, could be used to spot camouflaged vehicles on a battlefield or extract a voice signal from a noisy background - tasks humans can do well, but computers cannot. ‘Whether or not their technology ==lives up to== the claims made for it, the fact that HNC are emphasising the use of AI is itself an interesting development,’ says Dr Leake.
  • HNC声称他们的系统基于30个处理器组,可以用来识别战场上的伪装车辆或者提取声音信号从一个非常吵闹的场合中.这些人类做的很好但是计算机不能做的任务.无论他们的技术是否符合他们的期望.HNC强调AI的发展本身就很有趣.

AI做的不错的例子.

reckon 认为.

cluster 一系列,一组

camouflaged 伪装的

live up to 符合

F

  • Another factor that may boost the prospects for AI in the near future is that investors are now looking for firms using clever technology, rather than just a clever business model, to differentiate themselves.
  • 另一个因素促进AI的发展的可能性在不就的将来,是如今投资者开始寻找使用聪明技术的公司,而不是仅仅用聪明的商业模型.
  • In particular, the problem of information overload, exacerbated by the growth of e-mail and the explosion in the number of web pages, means there are plenty of opportunities for new technologies to help filter and categorise information - classic AI problems. That may mean that more artificial intelligence companies will start to emerge to meet this challenge.
  • 尤其是,信息过载问题,这个问题被电子邮件和网页的快速发展所加剧影响.这意味对新技术来说有更多的机会帮助过滤和分类信息.这意味着可能出现更多的AI公司来面对这个挑战.

(讲的真好,快结局了也感觉啥都没说...下次别写了.)

prospect可能性.

exacerbated 加重

G

  • The 1969 film, 2001: A Space Odyssey, featured an intelligent computer called HAL 9000. As well as understanding and speaking English, HAL could play chess and even learned to lipread.
  • 1969年的电影2001太空漫游,上演了一个人工智能叫做HAL9000可以理解和说英语.还可以下棋甚至还会唇语.
  • HAL thus encapsulated the optimism of the 1960s that intelligent computers would be widespread by 2001. But 2001 has been and gone, and there is still no sign of a HAL-like computer.
  • HAL 因此也被60年代的乐观所包围,认为AI电脑可以非常普遍到2001年.但2001年早就过去了,还没有这样的电脑.
  • Individual systems can play chess or transcribe speech, but a general theory of machine intelligence still remains elusive. It may be, however, that the comparison with HAL no longer seems quite so important, and AI can now be judged by what it can do, rather than by how well it matches up to a 30-year-old science-fiction film. ‘People are beginning to realise that there are impressive things that these systems can do,’ says Dr Leake hopefully.
  • 单独的系统可以下棋或转录语音,但机器智能的一般理论仍然难以捉摸。然而,与HAL的比较可能不再那么重要,人工智能现在可以根据它能做什么来判断,而不是看它与30年前的科幻电影有多匹配。L满怀希望地说 人们开始意识到这些系统可以做一些令人印象深刻的事情。

美好的展望.....但是真的啥都没说啊整篇文章!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

featured 上演

lipread. 唇语

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